Scar

Definition and derivation

First attested in English in the late 14th century, the word scar derives from a conflation of Old French escharre, from Late Latin eschara, which is the Latinization of the Greek ἐσχάρα (eskhara), meaning “hearth, fireplace”, but in medicine “scab, eschar on a wound caused by burning or otherwise”, and Middle English skar (“cut, crack, incision”), which is from Old Norse skarð (“notch, gap”). The conflation helped to form the English meaning. Compare Scarborough for evolution of skarð to scar.

.scar is an area of fibrous tissue that replaces normal skin after an injury. Scars result from the biological process of wound repair in the skin, as well as in other organs and tissues of the body. Thus, scarring is a natural part of the healing process. With the exception of very minor lesions, every wound (e.g., after accident, disease, or surgery) results in some degree of scarring. An exception to this is animals with complete regeneration, which regrow tissue without scar formation.

Scar tissue is composed of the same protein (collagen) as the tissue that it replaces, but the fiber composition of the protein is different; instead of a random basketweave formation of the collagen fibers found in normal tissue, in fibrosis the collagen cross-links and forms a pronounced alignment in a single direction. This collagen scar tissue alignment is usually of inferior functional quality to the normal collagen randomized alignment. For example, scars in the skin are less resistant to ultraviolet radiation, and sweat glands and hair follicles do not grow back within scar tissues. A myocardial infarction, commonly known as a heart attack, causes scar formation in the heart muscle, which leads to loss of muscular power and possibly heart failure. However, there are some tissues (e.g. bone) that can heal without any structural or functional deterioration.

All scarring is composed of the same collagen as the tissue it has replaced, but the composition of the scar tissue, compared to the normal tissue, is different. Scar tissue also lacks elasticity unlike normal tissue which distributes fiber elasticity. Scars differ in the amounts of collagen overexpressed. Labels have been applied to the differences in overexpression. Two of the most common types are hypertrophic and keloid scarring, both of which experience excessive stiff collagen bundled growth overextending the tissue, blocking off regeneration of tissues. Another form is atrophic scarring (sunken scarring), which also has an overexpression of collagen blocking regeneration. This scar type is sunken, because the collagen bundles do not overextend the tissue. Stretch marks (striae) are regarded as scars by some.

High melanin levels and either African or Asian ancestry may make adverse scarring more noticeable.

Hypertrophic

Hypertrophic scars occur when the body overproduces collagen, which causes the scar to be raised above the surrounding skin. Hypertrophic scars take the form of a red raised lump on the skin. They usually occur within 4 to 8 weeks following wound infection or wound closure with excess tension and/or other traumatic skin injuries.

Keloid

Keloid scarring following persistent whipping. People with darker skin pigmentation are more prone to the development of keloid scarring.

Keloid scars are a more serious form of excessive scarring because they can grow indefinitely into large, tumorous (although benign) neoplasms.

Hypertrophic scars are often distinguished from keloid scars by their lack of growth outside the original wound area, but this commonly taught distinction can lead to confusion.]

Keloid scars can occur on anyone, but they are most common in dark-skinned people. They can be caused by surgery, accident, acne or, sometimes, body piercings. In some people, keloid scars form spontaneously. Although they can be a cosmetic problem, keloid scars are only inert masses of collagen and therefore completely harmless and not cancerous. However, they can be itchy or painful in some individuals. They tend to be most common on the shoulders and chest. Hypertrophic scars and keloids tend to be more common in wounds closed by secondary intention. Surgical removal of keloid is risky and may exacerbate the condition and worsening of the keloid.

Atrophic

An atrophic scar takes the form of a sunken recess in the skin, which has a pitted appearance. These are caused when underlying structures supporting the skin, such as fat or muscle, are lost. This type of scarring is often associated with acne, chickenpox, other diseases (especially Staphylococcus infection), surgery, certain insect and spider bites, or accidents. It can also be caused by a genetic connective tissue disorder, such as Ehlers–Danlos syndrome.

Stretch marks

Stretch marks (technically called striae) are also a form of scarring. These are caused when the skin is stretched rapidly (for instance during pregnancy, significant weight gain, or adolescent growth spurts), or when skin is put under tension during the healing process, (usually near joints). This type of scar usually improves in appearance after a few years.

Elevated corticosteroid levels are implicated in striae development.

Collagen synthesis

Any injury does not become a scar until the wound has completely healed; this can take many months, or years in the worst pathological cases, such as keloids. To begin to patch the damage, a clot is created; the clot is the beginning process that results in a provisional matrix. In the process, the first layer is a provisional matrix and is not scar. Over time, the wounded body tissue then overexpresses collagen inside the provisional matrix to create a collagen matrix. This collagen overexpression continues and crosslinks the fiber arrangement inside the collagen matrix, making the collagen dense. This densely packed collagen, morphing into an inelastic whitish collagen scar wall, blocks off cell communication and regeneration; as a result, the new tissue generated will have a different texture and quality than the surrounding unwounded tissue. This prolonged collagen-producing process results in a fortuna scar.

Treatment

Early and effective treatment of acne scarring can prevent severe acne and the scarring that often follows. As of 2014 no prescription drugs for the treatment or prevention of scars were available.]

Available treatments:

Chemical peels

Filler injections

Laser treatment

Radiotherapy

Dressings & topical silicone

Steroids

There are so many pros and cons to this type of treatment, it is difficult for me to recommend any of them.  Sometimes the cure is worse than the scar.

Vitamins

Research shows the use of vitamin E  as treatments for scars is ineffective. Vitamin E causes contact dermatitis in up to 33{e12c0cf0eebb0f072b6683a0a48eb16594d80091c3d09684172fc9929c7c2cd7} of users and in some cases it may worsen scar appearance and could cause minor skin irritations, but Vitamin C and some of its esters fade the dark pigment associated with some scars.

We here are Private Label Skincare Florida have made both a scar cream and a lightening cream that is very effective in treating the discoloration and flattening out the scar. The scar cream is also very good for stretch marks and helps make them less noticeable.  Contact us to add these two remarkable creams to your line.

To schedule a call with our product specialist, please fill out the brief form below and let us know when it would be best to give you a call.

Content retrieved from: https://privatelabelbeautyandwellness.com/blog/2019/9/25/scar.

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